The global spreading of antibiotic resistance is one of the greatest threats of the 21st century and can be compared to climate change in terms of its severity and effect on the world’s population. In 2019, almost 5 million deaths were associated with drug-resistant bacterial infections. At the same time, however, fewer and fewer new antibiotics are brought to market with yearly FDA approvals steadily decreasing since the 1980s. Without efficient antibiotics, many of the achievements of modern medicine that we today take for granted, such as major surgery, organ transplantation, and cancer chemotherapy, will no longer be available. Therefore, novel and unconventional approaches for the treatment of multidrug-resistant infections are urgently needed. We thus investigate and develop alternative approaches beyond the application of conventional antibiotics to combat drug-resistant bacteria and stop their spreading. In this regard, we focus in particular on the application of nanostructures and nanomaterials.